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# Fractal Dimension Computation in Python Code

```On Friday, September 29, 2000 at 12:45:00 PM UTC+5:45, Mike Brenner wrote:
> Myk> ... Has anyone got a fast routine for calculating the fractal
> dimension of a set of points in 2 or 3D space?  Thanks.
>
> According to the inventor of fractals (Hausdorff in the year 1899), you
> can place the set of 2D points next to a wall and shine light through
> them, and the fractal dimension is the percentage of shadow on the wall.
>
> If the points are not dense anywhere, then the fractional dimension will
> be zero. But if parts of them are filled in, then they will cast a
>
> Same with the 3D points, just put them next to a four dimensional wall
> and shine a four dimensional light through them (the way you measure the
> amount of holes in a Swiss Cheese :).
>
> To do this in Python, you would have to define "dense" as being points
> that are within a certain distance of each other according to some
> cohesion metric, and then add up all the parts according to their
> topological coupling. The algorithm in outline would be something like
> this:
>
> 	dimension=2
> 	total_area = point_set.integrate_area(dimension,metric)
> 	area = 0
> 	coupling = neural_net.cluster(point_set,dimension,metric)
> 	for connected_part in coupling:
> 		area = area + connected_part.integrate_area(dimension,metric)
> 	fractional_dimension = dimension * (total_area - area) / total_area
>
> To make this work for real, just program the three missing functions:
>
> 	METRIC 		computes the distance between two points
>
> 	INTEGRATE_AREA 	integrates over point sets to get their area
>
> 	CLUSTER 	divides the set into independent connected point sets
>
> If you don't have a neural net available to do the clustering, you can
> use a genetic algorithm or an annealing algorithm, all of which are
> equivalent.
>
> You could do this in an analog fashion by using a CRT projector onto the
> wall of a dark room and a sensitive light meter feeding into a ADC
> connected to your RS-232 or parallel or IEEE or Firewire port. Draw the
> point set on the screen and have the computer read the light meter, then
> draw an all white screen and read the light meter again, and take the
> ratio. Here is the code:
>
> 	graphics.init()
> 	graphics.open()
> 	dimension = 2
> 	graphics.fill_screen(black)
> 	graphics.fill_screen(white)
> 	for point in point_set:
> 		graphics.draw_point(point,black)
> 	denominator = white_area - black_area
> 	numerator = area - black_area
> 	fractional_dimension = dimension * numerator - denominator
>
> This code requires you install a graphic capability, a firewire
> capability, a light sensitive meter, an analog-to-digital converter, a
> firewire driver for the ADC. To do a 3D point set this way, would
> probably involve techniques such as a tomograph machine to do one slice
> at a time.
>
> Mike Brenner
> MikeTheMathematician at IEEE.org

hello sir
my name is Ramkrishna tiwari,assistant proessor of physics in tribhuvan university of nepal. Currently i am in a phd project  and needs to calculate box counting dimension from earthquake data(lon,lat,mag,depth) etc.i am using python and don't get any clue at all.would you please help me out by explaining the technique.
sincerely
Ramkrishna tiwari

```