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[Python-Dev] PEP 590 discussion


Hello!
I've had time for a more thorough reading of PEP 590 and the reference 
implementation. Thank you for the work!
Overall, I like PEP 590's direction. I'd now describe the fundamental 
difference between PEP 580 and PEP 590 as:
- PEP 580 tries to optimize all existing calling conventions
- PEP 590 tries to optimize (and expose) the most general calling 
convention (i.e. fastcall)

PEP 580 also does a number of other things, as listed in PEP 579. But I 
think PEP 590 does not block future PEPs for the other items.
On the other hand, PEP 580 has a much more mature implementation -- and 
that's where it picked up real-world complexity.

PEP 590's METH_VECTORCALL is designed to handle all existing use cases, 
rather than mirroring the existing METH_* varieties.
But both PEPs require the callable's code to be modified, so requiring 
it to switch calling conventions shouldn't be a problem.

Jeroen's analysis from 
https://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-dev/2018-July/154238.html seems 
to miss a step at the top:

a. CALL_FUNCTION* / CALL_METHOD opcode
       calls
b. _PyObject_FastCallKeywords()
       which calls
c. _PyCFunction_FastCallKeywords()
       which calls
d. _PyMethodDef_RawFastCallKeywords()
       which calls
e. the actual C function (*ml_meth)()

I think it's more useful to say that both PEPs bridge a->e (via 
_Py_VectorCall or PyCCall_Call).


PEP 590 is built on a simple idea, formalizing fastcall. But it is 
complicated by PY_VECTORCALL_ARGUMENTS_OFFSET and 
Py_TPFLAGS_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR.
As far as I understand, both are there to avoid intermediate 
bound-method object for LOAD_METHOD/CALL_METHOD. (They do try to be 
general, but I don't see any other use case.)
Is that right?
(I'm running out of time today, but I'll write more on why I'm asking, 
and on the case I called "impossible" (while avoiding creation of a 
"bound method" object), later.)


The way `const` is handled in the function signatures strikes me as too 
fragile for public API.
I'd like if, as much as possible, PY_VECTORCALL_ARGUMENTS_OFFSET was 
treated as a special optimization that extension authors can either opt 
in to, or blissfully ignore.
That might mean:
- vectorcall, PyObject_VectorCallWithCallable, PyObject_VectorCall, 
PyCall_MakeTpCall all formally take "PyObject *const *args"
- a na?ve callee must do "nargs &= ~PY_VECTORCALL_ARGUMENTS_OFFSET" 
(maybe spelled as "nargs &= PY_VECTORCALL_NARGS_MASK"), but otherwise 
writes compiler-enforced const-correct code.
- if PY_VECTORCALL_ARGUMENTS_OFFSET is set, the callee may modify 
"args[-1]" (and only that, and after the author has read the docs).


Another point I'd like some discussion on is that vectorcall function 
pointer is per-instance. It looks this is only useful for type objects, 
but it will add a pointer to every new-style callable object (including 
functions). That seems wasteful.
Why not have a per-type pointer, and for types that need it (like 
PyTypeObject), make it dispatch to an instance-specific function?


Minor things:
- "Continued prohibition of callable classes as base classes" -- this 
section reads as a final. Would you be OK wording this as something 
other PEPs can tackle?
- "PyObject_VectorCall" -- this looks extraneous, and the reference 
imlementation doesn't need it so far. Can it be removed, or justified?
- METH_VECTORCALL is *not* strictly "equivalent to the currently 
undocumented METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORD flags" (it has the 
ARGUMENTS_OFFSET complication).
- I'd like to officially call this PEP "Vectorcall", see 
https://github.com/python/peps/pull/984



Mark, what are your plans for next steps with PEP 590? If a volunteer 
wanted to help you push this forward, what would be the best thing to 
work on?

Jeroen, is there something in PEPs 579/580 that PEP 590 blocks, or 
should address?